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His works include some of Italys most famous and best-loved plays, audiences have admired the plays of Goldoni for their ingenious mix of wit and honesty. His plays offered his contemporaries images of themselves, often dramatizing the lives, values, though he wrote in French and Italian, his plays make rich use of the Venetian language, regional vernacular, and colloquialisms.
Goldoni also wrote under the pen name and title Polisseno Fegeio, Pastor Arcade, One of his best known works is the comic play Servant of Two Masters, which has been translated and adapted internationally numerous times. There is an abundance of information on Goldoni, most of which comes from the introductions to his plays. However, these memoirs are known to many errors of fact. In these memoirs, he himself as a born comedian, careless, light-hearted and with a happy temperament, proof against all strokes of fate.
Goldoni was born in Venice in , the son of Margherita, in his memoirs, Goldoni describes his father as a physician, and claims that he was introduced to theatre by his grandfather Carlo Alessandro Goldoni. In reality, it seems that Giulio was an apothecary, as for the grandfather and his father placed him under the care of the philosopher Caldini at Rimini but the youth soon ran away with a company of strolling players and returned to Venice. In his father matriculated him into the stern Collegio Ghislieri in Pavia, however, he relates in his Memoirs that a considerable part of his time was spent in reading Greek and Latin comedies.
He had already begun writing at this time and, in his third year, as a result of that incident he was expelled from the school and had to leave the city. He studied law at Udine, and eventually took his degree at University of Modena and he was employed as a law clerk at Chioggia and Feltre, after which he returned to his native city and began practicing.
Goldoni returned with her to Venice, where he stayed until , Goldoni entered the Italian theatre scene with a tragedy, Amalasunta, produced in Milan. The play was a critical and financial failure, everything must be done according to a certain form which I will explain to you. Goldoni thanked his critic, went back to his inn and ordered a fire and his next play, Belisario, written in , was more successful, though of its success he afterward professed himself ashamed.
During this period he wrote librettos for opera seria and served for a time as literary director of the San Giovanni Grisostomo. He wrote other tragedies for a time, but he was not long in discovering that his bent was for comedy 2.
Commedia dellarte also is considered commedia alla maschera, commedia improvviso, a commedia, such as The Tooth Puller, is both scripted and improvised.
Characters entrances and exits are scripted, a special characteristic of commedia dellarte are the lazzi. A lazzo is a joke or something foolish or witty, another characteristic of commedia dellarte is pantomime, which is mostly used by the character Arlecchino. The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types, stock characters, such as old men, devious servants.
The main categories of characters include servants, old men, lovers. The characters are exaggerated real characters, such as a know it all doctor called Il Dottore, many troupes were formed to perform commedia dellarte, including I Gelosi, Confidenti Troupe, Desioi Troupe, and Fedeli Troupe. Commedia dellarte was often performed outside on platforms or in areas such as a piazza. In the Flaminio Scala scenario for example, Il Magnifico persists and is interchangeable with Pantalone, while Calmos characters were not masked, it is uncertain at what point the characters donned the mask.
However, the connection to carnival would suggest that masking was a convention of carnival and was applied at some point, the tradition in Northern Italy is centered in Mantua, Florence, and Venice, where the major companies came under the aegis of the various dukes. Concomitantly, a Neapolitan tradition emerged in the south and featured the prominent stage figure Pulcinella, Pulcinella has been long associated with Naples, and derived into various types elsewhere—the most famous as the puppet character Punch in England.
Although commedia dellarte flourished in Italy during the Mannerist period, there has been a tradition of trying to establish historical antecedents in antiquity. While we can detect formal similarities between the commedia dellarte and earlier theatrical traditions, there is no way to establish certainty of origin, some date the origins to the period of the Roman Republic or the Empire. More recent accounts establish links to the medieval jongleurs, and prototypes from medieval moralities, the first recorded commedia dellarte performances came from Rome as early as This view may be somewhat romanticized since records describe the Gelosi performing Tassos Aminta, for example, by the midth century, specific troupes of commedia performers began to coalesce, and by the Gelosi became a distinct company.
In keeping with the tradition of the Italian Academies, I Gelosi adapted as their impress the two-faced Roman god Janus, Janus symbolized both the comings and goings of this traveling troupe, and the dual nature of the actor who impersonates the other 3.
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Playwright — A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes plays. The term is not a variant spelling of playwrite, but something quite distinct, hence the prefix and the suffix combine to indicate someone who has wrought words, themes, and other elements into a dramatic form - someone who crafts plays. The homophone with write is in this case entirely coincidental, the term playwright appears to have been coined by Ben Jonson in his Epigram 49, To Playwright, as an insult, to suggest a mere tradesman fashioning works for the theatre.
Jonson described himself as a poet, not a playwright, since plays during that time were written in meter and this view was held as late as the early 19th century. The term playwright later lost this negative connotation, the earliest playwrights in Western literature with surviving works are the Ancient Greeks. These early plays were written for annual Athenian competitions among playwrights held around the 5th century BC, such notables as Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes established forms still relied on by their modern counterparts.
In the 4th century BCE, Aristotle wrote his Poetics, the first play-writing manual, in this famous text, Aristotle established the principle of action or praxis as the basis for all drama.
He then included a hierarchy of elements for the beginning with plot, character, thought, diction, music. The ends of drama were plot, character, and thought, the means of drama were language and music, since the myths, upon which Greek tragedy were based, were widely known, plot had to do with the arrangement and selection of existing material. Character was equated with choice as rather than psychology, so that character was determined by action, in tragedy, the notion of ethical choice determined the character of the individual.
Thought had more to do and the imitation of an action that is serious, thus, he developed his notion of hamartia, or tragic flaw, an error in judgment by the main character or protagonist. It provides the basis for the play, a term still held as the sine qua non of dramaturgy. The Poetics, while very brief and highly condensed, is studied today.
Perhaps the most Aristotelian of contemporary playwrights is David Mamet, who embraces the idea of character as agent of the action, and emphasizes causality in the structure of his plays. His recently revived, Speed-the-Plow, is quintessentially Aristotelian, in that it observes the unities and builds its plot through a causal stream of discoveries and reversals. The Italian Renaissance brought about a stricter interpretation of Aristotle, as this long-lost work came to light in the late 15th century.
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The neoclassical ideal, which was to reach its apogee in France during the 17th century, dwelled upon the unities, of action, place, and time 4. Harlequin — Harlequin is the best-known of the zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dellarte. The Harlequin is characterized by his chequered costume and he later develops into a prototype of the romantic hero. As the Harlequinade portion of English dramatic genre pantomime developed, Harlequin was routinely paired with the character Clown, as developed by Joseph Grimaldi around , Clown became the mischievous and brutish foil for the more sophisticated Harlequin, who became more of a romantic character.
The most influential such pair in Victorian England were the Payne Brothers, although the origins of the Harlequin are obscure there are several theories for how the character came to be. Hellequin was depicted as an emissary of the devil, roaming the countryside with a group of demons chasing the damned souls of evil people to Hell. The physical appearance of Hellequin offers an explanation for the colours of Harlequins red-and-black mask.
The re-interpretation of the stock character as a zanni character of the commedia dellarte took place in the 16th century in France. Zan Ganassa, whose troupe is first mentioned in Mantua in the late s, is one of the earliest known actors suggested to have performed the part, although there is little hard evidence to support.
Ganassa performed in France in , and if he did play the part there, he left the open for another actor to take up the role. The motley costume is sometimes attributed to Martinelli, who wore a costume of colourful patches. Martinellis Harlequin also had a black leather half-mask, a moustache and he was very successful, even playing at court and becoming a favourite of Henry IV of France, to whom he addressed insolent monologues.
The rhombus shape of the patches arose by adaptation to the Paris fashion of the 17th century by Biancolelli, the primary aspect of Arlecchino was his physical agility. He was very nimble and performed the sort of acrobatics the audience expected to see, the character would never perform a simple action when the addition of a cartwheel, somersault, or flip would spice up the movement. By contrast with the first zanni Harlequin takes little or no part in the development of the plot and he has the more arduous task of maintaining the even rhythm of the comedy as a whole.
Arlecchino is sometimes referred to as putting on a show of stupidity in a attempt to create chaos within the play 5. In keeping with the tradition of the Italian Academies, I Gelosi adapted as their impress the two-faced Roman god Janus, Janus symbolized both the comings and goings of this traveling troupe, and the dual nature of the actor who impersonates the other 6.
Play theatre — A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, there are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference as to whether their plays were performed or read.
The term play can refer to both the works of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance. Comedies are plays which are designed to be humorous, comedies are often filled with witty remarks, unusual characters, and strange circumstances. Certain comedies are geared toward different age groups, comedies were one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece, along with tragedies.
An example of a comedy would be William Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream, a generally nonsensical genre of play, farces are often overacted and often involve slapstick humor. An example of a farce includes William Shakespeares play The Comedy of Errors, a satire play takes a comic look at current events people while at the same time attempting to make a political or social statement, for example pointing out corruption. An example of a satire would be Nikolai Gogols The Government Inspector, satire plays are generally one of the most popular forms of comedy, and often considered to be their own genre entirely.
This may give clues as to why, despite its original success, however, in recent years, it has become a topic of interest for theatre theorists, who have been looking into theatre styles that have their own conventions of performance. These plays contain darker themes such as death and disaster, often the protagonist of the play has a tragic flaw, a trait which leads to their downfall.
Tragic plays convey all emotions and have extremely dramatic conflicts, tragedy was one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece.
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Some examples of tragedies include William Shakespeares Hamlet, and also John Websters play The Duchess of Malfi and these plays focus on actual historical events. They can be tragedies or comedies, but are neither of these. History as a genre was popularized by William Shakespeare. Examples of historical plays include Friedrich Schillers Demetrius and William Shakespeares King John, ballad opera, a popular theatre style at the time, was the first style of musical to be performed in the American colonies.
Venice — Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of small islands that are separated by canals and these are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers.
Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a World Heritage Site. In ,, people resided in Comune di Venezia, together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, with a total population of 2. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC, the city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice.
The City State of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century and this made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period, Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of , the name Venetia, however, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Eneti.
The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends. The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia, some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae, the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March Beginning as early as AD to , the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the center in the area.
The Roman defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years later, New ports were built, including those at Malamocco and Torcello in the Venetian lagoon.
The tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the Lagoon, the traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio Anafesto, was actually Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello Tegalliano, was Pauls magister militum.
In the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose in a rebellion over the controversy at the urging of Pope Gregory II 8. Harlequinade — Harlequinade is a British comic theatrical genre, defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as that part of a pantomime in which the harlequin and clown play the principal parts.
It developed in England between the 17th and midth centuries and it was originally a slapstick adaptation or variant of the Commedia dellarte, which originated in Italy and reached its apogee there in the 16th and 17th centuries. Originally a mime act with music and stylised dance, the harlequinade later employed some dialogue, early in its development, it achieved great popularity as the comic closing part of a longer evening of entertainment, following a more serious presentation with operatic and balletic elements.
An often elaborate magical transformation scene, presided over by a fairy, connected the unrelated stories, changing the first part of the pantomime, and its characters, into the harlequinade.
In the late 18th and 19th centuries, the became the larger part of the entertainment.