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The creature has been affectionately called Nessie [a] Scottish Gaelic: Niseag  since the s. Other authors have claimed sightings of the monster dating to the sixth century AD. They explained that the man was swimming in the river when he was attacked by a "water beast" which mauled him and dragged him underwater. Although they tried to rescue him in a boat, he was dead. Columba sent a follower, Luigne moccu Min, to swim across the river.
The beast approached him, but Columba made the sign of the cross and said: Do not touch the man. Go back at once. Mackenzie or In October or , D. Mackenzie of Balnain reportedly saw an object resembling a log or an upturned boat "wriggling and churning up the water". The object moved slowly at first, disappearing at a faster speed. They saw no limbs. In the s, the existing road by the side of the loch was given a serious upgrade just possibly this work could have contributed to the legend, since there could have been tar barrels floating in the loch.
It was slightly blurred, and it has been noted that if one looks closely the head of a dog can be seen. Gray had taken his Labrador for a walk that day, and it is suspected that the photograph depicts his dog fetching a stick from the loch.
The original negative was lost. However, in Maurice Burton came into "possession of two lantern slides, contact positives from th[e] original negative" and when projected on screen it revealed an "otter rolling at the surface in characteristic fashion.
Adolf Hitler and the 1933 Reichstag Fire | Time
Grant, a veterinary student, described it as a cross between a seal and a plesiosaur. He said he dismounted and followed it to the loch, but only saw ripples.
Only two exposures came out clearly; the first reportedly shows a small head and back, and the second shows a similar head in a diving position. The first photo became well-known, and the second attracted little publicity because of its blurriness. Although for a number of years the photo was considered evidence of the monster, sceptics dismissed it as driftwood,  an elephant,  an otter , or a bird. The ripples in the photo were found to fit the size and pattern of small ripples, unlike large waves photographed up close.
Analysis of the original image fostered further doubt. In , the makers of the Discovery Communications documentary Loch Ness Discovered analysed the uncropped image and found a white object visible in every version of the photo implying that it was on the negative.
It was believed to be the cause of the ripples, as if the object was being towed, although the possibility of a blemish on the negative could not be ruled out.
Wetherell had been publicly ridiculed by his employer, the Daily Mail , after he found "Nessie footprints" which turned out to be a hoax. To get revenge on the Mail, Wetherell perpetrated his hoax with co-conspirators Spurling sculpture specialist , Ian Wetherell his son, who bought the material for the fake , and Maurice Chambers an insurance agent.
Woolworths , and its head and neck were made from wood putty. When they heard a water bailiff approaching, Duke Wetherell sank the model with his foot and it is "presumably still somewhere in Loch Ness". He sold the first photo to the Daily Mail,  who then announced that the monster had been photographed.
It shows a head similar to the first photo, with a more turbulent wave pattern and possibly taken at a different time and location in the loch.
Some believe it to be an earlier, cruder attempt at a hoax,  and others including Roy Mackal and Maurice Burton consider it a picture of a diving bird or otter which Wilson mistook for the monster. The film was obtained by popular science writer Maurice Burton , who did not show it to other researchers. A single frame was published in his book, The Elusive Monster.
His analysis concluded it was a floating object, not an animal. He believed his power to protect the monster from the hunters was "very doubtful". The letter was released by the National Archives of Scotland on 27 April On 23 October it was published by the Weekly Scotsman.
Author Ronald Binns wrote that the "phenomenon which MacNab photographed could easily be a wave effect resulting from three trawlers travelling closely together up the loch. It is suspected that the photograph was doctored by re-photographing a print. A person who enhanced the film noticed a shadow in the negative which was not obvious in the developed film. By enhancing and overlaying frames, he found what appeared to be the rear body of a creature underwater: Due to the lack of ripples, it has been declared a hoax by a number of people and received its name because of its staged look.
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Shine was also interviewed, and suggested that the footage was an otter, seal or water bird. In April , a scientist from the National Oceanography Centre said that the image is a bloom of algae and zooplankton.
Edwards claims to have searched for the monster for 26 years, and reportedly spent 60 hours per week on the loch aboard his boat, Nessie Hunter IV, taking tourists for rides on the lake. According to Raynor, Edwards told him he had faked a photograph in which he claimed was genuine in the Nat Geo documentary. According to Elder, the wave was produced by a 4. Possible explanations were the wake of a boat with the boat itself lost in image stitching or low contrast , seal -caused ripples, or floating wood.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Although 21 photographs were taken, none was considered conclusive.
Supervisor James Fraser remained by the loch filming on 15 September ; the film is now lost. The LNIB had an annual subscription charge, which covered administration. Its main activity was encouraging groups of self-funded volunteers to watch the loch from vantage points with film cameras with telescopic lenses. From to it had a caravan camp and viewing platform at Achnahannet , and sent observers to other locations up and down the loch.
Sonar study — D. Gordon Tucker, chair of the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering at the University of Birmingham , volunteered his services as a sonar developer and expert at Loch Ness in The device was fixed underwater at Temple Pier in Urquhart Bay and directed at the opposite shore, drawing an acoustic "net" across the loch through which no moving object could pass undetected.
During the two-week trial in August, multiple targets were identified. One was probably a shoal of fish, but others moved in a way not typical of shoals at speeds up to 10 knots.
Rines conducted a search for the monster involving sonar examination of the loch depths for unusual activity. Rines took precautions to avoid murky water with floating wood and peat. If Rines detected anything on the sonar, he turned the light on and took pictures.
According to author Roy Mackal, the shape was a "highly flexible laterally flattened tail" or the misinterpreted return from two animals swimming together. Both depicted what appeared to be a rhomboid flipper, although sceptics have dismissed the images as the bottom of the loch, air bubbles, a rock, or a fish fin. The apparent flipper was photographed in different positions, indicating movement.
According to team member Charles Wyckoff , the photos were retouched to superimpose the flipper; the original enhancement showed a considerably less-distinct object. No one is sure how the originals were altered. The strobe camera photographed two large, white, lumpy objects surrounded by a flurry of bubbles. Some interpreted the objects as two plesiosaur-like animals, suggesting several large animals living in Loch Ness.
This photograph has rarely been published. The academy also videotaped an object on the floor of the loch resembling a carcass and found marine clamshells and a fungus-like organism not normally found in freshwater lochs, a suggested connection to the sea and a possible entry for the creature.
He undertook a final expedition, using sonar and an underwater camera in an attempt to find a carcass. Rines believed that the animals may have failed to adapt to temperature changes resulting from global warming. According to BBC News the scientists had made sonar contact with an unidentified object of unusual size.
Analysis of the echosounder images seemed to indicate debris at the bottom of the loch, although there was motion in three of the pictures. Adrian Shine speculated, based on size, that they might be seals which had entered the loch. The search had sufficient resolution to identify a small buoy.
No animal of substantial size was found and, despite their high hopes, the scientists involved admitted that this proved the Loch Ness Monster was a myth. They may be categorised as misidentifications of known animals, misidentifications of inanimate objects or effects, reinterpretations of Scottish folklore, hoaxes , and exotic species of large animals. Misidentification of known animals Bird wakes Wakes have been reported when the loch is calm, with no boats nearby.
Bartender David Munro reported a wake he believed was a creature zigzagging, diving, and reappearing; there were reportedly 26 other witnesses from a nearby car park. In support of this, Clark provided a painting. It is dark in colour, with a small dorsal fin. Loch Ness has resident otters , and photos of them and deer swimming in the loch which were cited by author Ronald Binns  may have been misinterpreted.
According to Binns, birds may be mistaken for a "head and neck" sighting. A decomposing log could not initially release gases caused by decay because of its high resin level. Gas pressure would eventually rupture a resin seal at one end of the log, propelling it through the water sometimes to the surface.
According to Burton, the shape of tree logs with their branch stumps closely resembles descriptions of the monster. A seiche is a large oscillation of a lake, caused by water reverting to its natural level after being blown to one end of the lake resulting in a standing wave ; the Loch Ness oscillation period is Lehn showed that atmospheric refraction could distort the shape and size of objects and animals,  and later published a photograph of a mirage of a rock on Lake Winnipeg which resembled a head and neck.
Many reports consist only of a large disturbance on the surface of the water; this could be a release of gas through the fault, although it may be mistaken for something swimming below the surface. A wide range of natural phenomena have been hypothesised, including otters, swimming deer, and unusual waves. Binns wrote that an aspect of human psychology is the ability of the eye to see what it wants, and expects, to see.
Other hoaxes were revealed rather quickly by the perpetrators or exposed after diligent research. A few examples follow.