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Borders and castles of the Republic of Ancona in the 15th century. Greek merchants established a Tyrian purple dye factory here. It was occupied as a naval station in the Illyrian War of BC. Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia , and was enlarged by Trajan , who constructed the north quay with his Syrian architect Apollodorus of Damascus. At the beginning of it stands the marble triumphal arch with a single archway, and without bas-reliefs , erected in his honour in by the Senate and Roman people.
It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis of the Exarchate of Ravenna in the 7th and 8th centuries. Maritime Republic of Ancona[ edit ] After , Ancona became increasingly independent, eventually turning into an important maritime republic together with Gaeta and Ragusa , it is one of those not appearing on the Italian naval flag , often clashing against the nearby power of Venice.
An oligarchic republic, Ancona was ruled by six Elders, elected by the three terzieri into which the city was divided: Pietro, Porto and Capodimonte.
It had a coin of its own, the agontano , and a series of laws known as Statuti del mare e del Terzenale and Statuti della Dogana. Ancona was usually allied with Republic of Ragusa and the Byzantine Empire. In , and it was strong enough to push back the forces of the Holy Roman Empire. Anconitan ships took part in the Crusades, and their navigators included Cyriac of Ancona. In the struggle between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors that troubled Italy from the 12th century onwards, Ancona sided with the Guelphs.
Trade routes and warehouses of the maritime republic of Ancona Differently from other cities of northern Italy, Ancona never became a seignory. The sole exception was the rule of the Malatesta , who took the city in taking advantage of the black death and of a fire that had destroyed many of its important buildings. The Malatesta were ousted in Symbol of the papal authority was the massive Citadel.
In the Papal States[ edit ] Together with Rome, and Avignon in southern France, Ancona was the sole city in the Papal States in which the Jews were allowed to stay after , living in the ghetto built after The southern quay was built in , and the harbour was protected by forts on the heights. From onwards, when the French took it, it frequently appears in history as an important fortress.
The Greek community of Ancona in the 16th century[ edit ] Ancona, as well as Venice, became a very important destination for merchants from the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century. The Greeks formed the largest of the communities of foreign merchants.
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They were refugees from former Byzantine or Venetian territories that were occupied by the Ottomans in the late 15th and 16th centuries. The first Greek community was established in Ancona early in the 16th century.
Natalucci, the 17th-century historian of the city, notes the existence of Greek families in Ancona at the opening of the 16th century.
Most of them came from northwestern Greece, i. They secured the use of the Church of St. Anna dei Greci and were granted permission to hold services according to the Greek and the Latin rite. The church of St. Anna had existed since the 13th century, initially as "Santa Maria in Porta Cipriana," on ruins of the ancient Greek walls of Ancona.
In a decision by Pope Paul III favoured the activity of merchants of all nationalities and religions from the Levant and allowed them to settle in Ancona with their families.
A Venetian travelling through Ancona in recorded that the city was "full of merchants from every nation and mostly Greeks and Turks. Disputes between the Orthodox and Catholic Greeks of the community were frequent and persisted until when the city was occupied by France who closed all the religious confraternities and confiscated the archive of the Greek community.
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Anna dei Greci was re-opened to services in In , in the absence of a Greek community in Ancona, it passed to the Latin Church.
During World War II , in July , the city was taken by the Polish II Corps as part of an Allied operation to gain access to a seaport closer to the Gothic Line in order to shorten their lines of communication for the advance into northern Italy. The battle was the result of an Allied plan to capture the city of Ancona in Italy in order to gain possession of a seaport closer to the fighting so that they could shorten their lines of communication.
The Polish 2nd Corps was tasked with capture of the city on 16 June , accomplishing the task a month later on 18 July Ancona Jews Jews began to live in Ancona in A. From and on, the Jewish community of Ancona grew steadily, most due to the city importance and it being a center of trade with the Levant.
In that year, Jewish poet Immanuel the Roman tried to lower high taxation taken from the Jewish community of the city. Over the next years, Jews from Germany, Spain, Sicily and Portugal immigrated to Ancona, due to persecutions in their homeland and thanks to the pro-Jewish attitude taken towards Ancona Jews due to their importance in the trade and banking business, making Ancona a trade center.
In , the Jewish population of Ancona numbered about individuals. While some did, others refused to do so and thus were hanged and then burnt in the town square. The boycott was led by Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi. Though emancipated by Napoleon I for several years, in Pope Gregory XVI revived an old decree , forbidding Jews from living outside the ghetto , wearing identification sign on their clothes and other religious and financial restrictions, though public opinion did not approve of these restrictions and they were cancelled a short while after.
In , lived in Ancona.
The majority of the Jewish community stayed in town or immigrated due to high ransoms paid to the fascist regime. In , about Jews lived in Ancona.
Two synagogues and two cemeteries still exist in the city. The ancient Monte-Cardeto cemetery is one of the biggest Jewish cemeteries in Europe and tombstones are dated to and on. It can still be visited and it resides within the Parco del Cardeto. Precipitation is regular throughout the year.
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Winters are cool January mean temp. Snow is not unusual with air masses coming from Northern Europe or from the Balkans and Russia, and can be heavy at times, especially in the hills surrounding the city centre. Summers are usually warm and humid July mean temp. Thunderstorms are quite common, particularly in August and September when can be intense with flash floods. Spring and autumn are changeable seasons, but generally mild. Climate data for Ancona — Month.