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Throughout his long and prolific career, he directed such films as The Saragossa Manuscript, The Doll. Early on in his career, Has gained a reputation as an individualist who avoided political overtones in his art, if Wojciech Has had become a painter, he would surely have been a Surrealist, wrote the Polish critic Aleksander Jackiewicz.
He would have redrawn antique objects with all their real accoutrements, Hass oeuvre is commonly associated with Surrealist painting in Polish criticism.
This is reinforced by the directors dream poetic and his use of objects, has also created a number of intimate psychological dramas during his career, such as How to Be Loved and Farewells, focusing on damaged individuals who have difficulty settling into life. In his work, he was fascinated by outsiders and people incapable of finding their place in reality. Two currents remain evident in Hass output, one was his cinema of psychological analysis, from to , Has was artistic director of the Rondo Film Studio and a member of the Polish State Cinema Committee.
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In , he served as dean of the department at the National Film School. In , he became the schools provost and remained in position for six years. He was the director and chief advisor at the school-affiliated Indeks Studio. Jerzy Maksymiuk — Jerzy Maksymiuk is a Polish composer, pianist and orchestra conductor.
Maksymiuk studied violin, piano, conducting and composition at the Warsaw Conservatory, in he won first prize in the Paderewski Piano Competition. Conducting soon became his principal career, while working at the Warsaw Grand Theatre, he formed the Polish Chamber Orchestra, which made its British debut in and has subsequently toured all over the world.
In April he was awarded the Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters by Strathclyde University and his recordings include the first uncut performance made in the West of Paderewskis massive Symphony in B minor Polonia, which he has also performed in concert in Poland.
Media related to Jerzy Maksymiuk at Wikimedia Commons 3. Polish language — Polish is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages, Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries.
It is one of the languages of the European Union. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script, Polish is closely related to Kashubian, Silesian, Upper Sorbian, Lower Sorbian, Czech and Slovak. It is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian, in history, Polish is known to be an important language, both diplomatically and academically in Central and Eastern Europe.
Today, Polish is spoken by over It is also spoken as a language in western parts of Belarus and Ukraine, west and central Lithuania, as well as the northern parts of the Czech Republic.
There are 55 million Polish language speakers around the world, Polish began to emerge as a distinct language around the 10th century, the process largely triggered by the establishment and development of the Polish state. With Christianity, Poland also adopted the Latin alphabet, which made it possible to write down Polish, the precursor to modern Polish is the Old Polish language.
Elsewhere, Poles constitute large minorities in Lithuania, Belarus, Polish is the most widely used minority language in Lithuanias Vilnius County and is found elsewhere in southeastern Lithuania. There are significant numbers of Polish speakers among Polish emigrants and their descendants in many other countries, in the United States, Polish Americans number more than 11 million but most of them cannot speak Polish fluently.
The largest concentrations of Polish speakers reported in the census were found in three states, Illinois, New York, and New Jersey. According to the census there are now over , people in England, in Canada, there is a significant Polish Canadian population, There are , speakers of Polish according to the census, with a particular concentration in Toronto and Montreal.
The geographical distribution of the Polish language was affected by the territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II.
Poles settled in the Recovered Territories in the west and north and this tendency toward a homogeneity also stems from the vertically integrated nature of the authoritarian Polish Peoples Republic. The inhabitants of different regions of Poland still speak standard Polish somewhat differently, first-language speakers of Polish have no trouble understanding each other, and non-native speakers may have difficulty distinguishing regional variations 4.
Holoubek participated in the September Campaign and was a prisoner of war during the Nazi German Occupation of Poland and his father was a Czech immigrant who settled in Poland after the First World War, and his mother was Polish. Holoubek had his first role as an actor in , thus beginning his career in theatre and film in Poland. His political career began in , when he was elected to the Sejm and he was re-elected in , but resigned in when martial law was declared.
In , he was elected to the Senate, the upper house and that same year, he took a position as a professor at the Academy of Theatre in Warsaw. Holoubek was a recipient of the Order of Polonia Restituta.
Cinema of Poland — After World War II, the communist government built an auteur based national cinema, trained hundreds of new directors and empowered them to make films.
Initially dubbed Living Pictures Theatre, it gained popularity and by the end of the next decade there were cinemas in almost every major town of Poland. During the World War I the Polish cinema crossed borders, films made in Warsaw or Vilna were often rebranded with German language intertitles and shown in Berlin. That was how a young actress Pola Negri gained fame in Germany, in November the communist government founded the film production and distribution organization Film Polski, and put the well-known Polish Peoples Army filmmaker Aleksander Ford in charge.
Starting with a few railway carriages full of film equipment taken from the Germans they proceed to train, the FP output was limited, only thirteen features were released between and its dissolution in , concentrating on Polish suffering at the hands of the Nazis.
The industry used imported cameras and film stocks, at first ORWO black and white film stock from East Germany and then Eastman colour negative stock and ORWO print stocks for rushes and release prints.
Poland made its own lighting equipment, because of the high costs of film stock Polish films were shot with very low shooting ratios, the amount of film stock used in shooting the film to length of the finished film.
The equipment and film stock were not the best and budgets were modest, another advantage was that as Film Polski was a state organisation film makers had access to all Polish institutions and their cooperation in making their films. Film cameras were able to enter almost every aspect of Polish life, the first film produced in Poland following the World War II was Zakazane piosenki, directed by Leonard Buczkowski, which was seen by Buczkowski continued to make films regularly until his death in , by the mid s, following the end of Stalinism in Poland, Film production was organised into film groups.
A film group was a collection of film makers, led by a film director and consisting of writers, film directors. They would write scripts, create budgets, apply for funding off the Ministry of Culture and they would hire actors and crew, and use studios and laboratories controlled by Film Polski. The change in political climate gave rise to the Polish Film School movement, Andrzej Wajdas films offer insightful analyses of the universal element of the Polish experience - the struggle to maintain dignity under the most trying circumstances 6.
The New York Times has won Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in to fewer than one million.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate.
In , the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone.
Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In , the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of , the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance, continuing and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in , the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began.
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The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening.
In the s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in , and the section in 7.
As of January , IMDb has approximately 4. Although all data is checked before going live, the system has open to abuse. The site also featured message boards which stimulate regular debates and dialogue among authenticated users, IMDb shutdown the message boards permanently on February 20, Anyone with a connection can read the movie and talent pages of IMDb.
A registration process is however, to contribute info to the site. A registered user chooses a name for themselves, and is given a profile page. Actors, crew, and industry executives can post their own resume and this fee enrolls them in a membership called IMDbPro.
Membership enables a user to access the rank order of each industry personality, as well as agent contact information for any actor, producer, director etc. Enrolling in PRO for industry personnel, enables those members the ability to upload a head shot to open their page, as well as the ability to upload hundreds of photos to accompany their page.
Anyone can register as a user, and contribute to the site as well as enjoy its content, however those users enrolled in PRO have greater access and privileges. IMDb originated with a Usenet posting by British film fan and computer programmer Col Needham entitled Those Eyes, others with similar interests soon responded with additions or different lists of their own.
Both lists had been restricted to people who were alive and working, the goal of the participants now was to make the lists as inclusive as possible. By late , the lists included almost 10, movies and television series correlated with actors and actresses appearing therein.
On October 17,, Needham developed and posted a collection of Unix shell scripts which could be used to search the four lists, at the time, it was known as the rec. Taking place in Poland during the late s and early s, the story begins immediately before World War II and centers on Pawel, a member of a conservative, bourgeois family, and his love for the thoroughly jaded Lidka, a dancer.
The mismatched pair finds momentary happiness during a trip to the countryside, however social conventions, the times change, war breaks out and ends, Pawel suffers at Auschwitz concentration camp and Lidka marries his cousin.
Years later the two rediscover each other much changed, and find that they may still have the capacity for love 9. Set primarily in Spain, it tells a story containing gothic, picaresque. In a deserted house during the Napoleonic Wars, two officers from opposing sides find a manuscript, which tells the tale of the Spanish officers grandfather, the film was a relative success in Poland and other parts of communist eastern Europe upon its release.
It later also achieved a level of success in the United States. During a battle in the Aragonese town of Saragossa during the Napoleonic Wars and he finds a large book with drawings of two men hanging on a gallows and two women in a bed.
An enemy officer tries to arrest him but ends up translating the book for him, the officer recognizes its author as his own grandfather. The ancestor, Alfonso van Worden, appears with two servants, seeking the shortest route through the Sierra Morena Mountains, the two men warn him against taking his chosen route because it leads through haunted territory. At an apparently deserted inn, the Venta Quemada, he is invited to dine with two Moorish princesses, Emina and Zibelda in an inner room.
They inform the captain that they are his cousins and, as the last of the Gomelez line, however, he must convert to Islam. Then they seduce him and give him a goblet to drink.
He wakes and finds himself back in the countryside, lying next to a heap of skulls under a gallows.
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He meets a hermit priest who is trying to cure a man, the latter tells his story. Alfonso sleeps in the chapel, hearing strange voices at night.
When he wakes and rides off, he is captured by the Spanish Inquisition, but he is rescued by the two princesses, aided by the gang of the Zoto brothers. Back in the room, the two princesses become amorous with Alfonso but they are interrupted by Sheikh Gomelez, who forces the captain to drink the skull goblet at sword point.
Again Alfonso awakens at the gallows, but this time a cabalist is lying next to him, as they ride to the Cabalists castle, they are joined by a skeptical mathematician, who remarks, The human mind is ready to accept anything, if it is used knowingly.
Thus ends part 1 of the film, part 2 is primarily filled with the nested tales told by the leader of a band of gypsies who visit the castle. Finally, Alfonso is told to return to the Venta Quemada and they bid him farewell and the Sheikh gives him the large book so that he can write the end of his own story The movie, however, may be compared to Stendhals The Red.
At the same time this story describes the disintegration of social relationships, in the bad air of a backward country, anti-Semitic ideas are born, valuable individuals meet obstacles on their way, and scoundrels are successful. This poetic love story follows a nouveau riche merchant, Stanislaw Wokulski, through a series of trials and tribulations occasioned by his passion for an aristocratic beauty.