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Biography[ edit ] Early life and education[ edit ] Simmel was born in Berlin , Germany , as the youngest of seven children of an assimilated Jewish family. His father, Eduard Simmel, a convert to Roman Catholicism , had founded a successful chocolate factory, Felix und Sarotti , later Sarotti Confections, and was a prosperous businessman.
His mother came from a Jewish family who had converted to the Lutheran church. Georg himself, was baptized as a Protestant when he was a child. His lectures were not only popular inside the university, but attracted the intellectual elite of Berlin as well.
Although his applications for vacant chairs at German universities were supported by Max Weber , Simmel remained an academic outsider.
However, with the support of an inheritance from his guardian, he was able to pursue his scholarly interests for many years without needing a salaried position. Partly he was seen as a Jew during an era of anti-Semitism, but also simply because his articles were written for a general audience rather than academic sociologists. This led to dismissive judgements from other professionals. Simmel nevertheless continued his intellectual and academic work, as well as taking part in artistic circles.
Only in , was he elevated to the rank of extraordinary professor full professor, but without a chair; see the German section at Professor. At that time he was well known throughout Europe and America and was seen as a man of great eminence.
His Flirting Ways (1917) - Plot Summary - IMDb
Because World War I broke out, all academic activities and lectures were halted and lecture halls were converted to military hospitals. In he applied — without success — for a chair at the University of Heidelberg. However, after its start, he was interested in its unfolding. Personal life[ edit ] In , Georg married Gertrud Kinel, a philosopher who published under the pseudonym Marie-Luise Enckendorf, and under her own name.
They lived a sheltered and bourgeois life, their home becoming a venue for cultivated gatherings in the tradition of the salon. In , Simmel stopped reading the newspapers and withdrew to the Black Forest to finish his book. First are his assumptions about the psychological workings of social life. Second is his interest in the sociological workings of interpersonal relationships. He also adopted the principle of emergence , which is the idea that higher levels emerge from the lower levels.
Finally, he dealt with his views in the nature and inevitable fate of humanity. His most microscopic work dealt with forms and the interaction that takes place with different types of people. The forms include subordination, superordination, exchange, conflict and sociability.
His principle was that everything interacts in some way with everything else. Overall, he was mostly interested in dualisms, conflicts, and contradictions in whatever realm of the social world he happened to be working on.
Simmel believed in the creative consciousness and this belief can be found in diverse forms of interaction, the ability of actors to create social structures and the disastrous effects those structures had on the creativity of individuals. Simmel also believed that social and cultural structures come to have a life of their own. In a dyad a person is able to retain their individuality.
There is no other person to shift the balance of the group thereby allowing those within the dyad to maintain their individuality. This seems to be an essential part of society which becomes a structure. Unfortunately as the group structure becomes increasingly greater the individual becomes separated and grows more alone, isolated and segmented.
On one hand he believed that the bigger the group the better for the individual.
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In a larger group it would be harder to exert control on individual, but on the other hand with a large group there is a possibility of the individual becoming distant and impersonal. Therefore, in an effort for the individual to cope with the larger group they must become a part of a smaller group such as the family.
In "The Stranger" , Simmel discusses how if a person is too close to the actor they are not considered a stranger, but if they are too far they would no longer be a part of a group. The particular distance from a group allows a person to have objective relationships with different group members. The series was conducted alongside the Dresden cities exhibition of Simmel was originally asked to lecture on the role of intellectual or scholarly life in the big city, but he effectively reversed the topic in order to analyze the effects of the big city on the mind of the individual.
As a result, when the lectures were published as essays in a book, to fill the gap, the series editor himself had to supply an essay on the original topic. The organizers of the exhibition over-emphasized its negative comments about city life, because Simmel also pointed out positive transformations.
During the s the essay was influential on the thinking of Robert E. Park and other American sociologists at the University of Chicago who collectively became known as the "Chicago School". It now appears regularly on the reading lists of courses in urban studies and architecture history. In other words, Simmel does not quite say that the big city has an overall negative effect on the mind or the self, even as he suggests that it undergoes permanent changes.
It is perhaps this ambiguity that gave the essay a lasting place in the discourse on the metropolis. The antagonism represents the most modern form of the conflict which primitive man must carry on with nature for his own bodily existence. The Philosophy of Money In this major work, Simmel saw money as a component of life which helped us understand the totality of life. He found that things which were too close were not considered valuable and things which were too far for people to get were also not considered valuable.
Considered in determining value was the scarcity, time, sacrifice, and difficulties involved in getting the object. As financial transactions increase, some emphasis shifts to what the individual can do, instead of who the individual is.
Financial matters in addition to emotions are in play. The Stranger is close to us, insofar as we feel between him and ourselves common features of a national, social, occupational, or generally human, nature. He is far from us, insofar as these common features extend beyond him or us, and connect us only because they connect a great many people.
In a society there must be a stranger. If everyone is known then there is no person that is able to bring something new to everybody. The stranger bears a certain objectivity that makes him a valuable member to the individual and society. People let down their inhibitions around him and confess openly without any fear. For example, especially in pre-modern societies, most strangers made a living from trade, which was often viewed as an unpleasant activity by "native" members of those societies.
In some societies, they were also employed as arbitrators and judges, because they were expected to treat rival factions in society with an impartial attitude. He holds a certain objectivity that allows him to be unbiased and decide freely without fear. He is simply able to see, think, and decide without being influenced by the opinion of others. In larger groups secrets are needed as a result of their heterogeneity.
In secret societies, groups are held together by the need to maintain the secret, a condition that also causes tension because the society relies on its sense of secrecy and exclusion. Simmel saw a general thread in the importance of secrets and the strategic use of ignorance: To be social beings who are able to cope successfully with their social environment, people need clearly defined realms of unknowns for themselves.
It is possible to buy silence. In the behavior of the flirt, the man feels the proximity and interpenetration of the ability and inability to acquire something.
This is in essence the "price. It also allows some to be individualistic by deviating from the norm. In the initial stage everyone adopts what is fashionable and those that deviate from the fashion inevitably adopt a whole new view of what they consider fashion. Ritzer wrote, Simmel argued that not only does following what is in fashion involve dualities so does the effort on the part of some people to be of fashion.
Unfashionable people view those who follow a fashion as being imitators and themselves as mavericks, but Simmel argued that the latter are simply engaging in an inverse form of imitation.
Pan-Verlag, Kant und Goethe, Berlin: Marquardt, Die Religion, Frankfurt am Main: Klinkhardt, Grundfragen der Soziologie, Berlin: