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Jesus in Limbo by Domenico Beccafumi The "Limbo of the Patriarchs" or "Limbo of the Fathers" Latin limbus patrum is seen as the temporary state of those who, despite the sins they may have committed, died in the friendship of God but could not enter Heaven until redemption by Jesus Christ made it possible.
The term "Limbo" does not appear in the Bible. The concept of Limbo of the Patriarchs is not spelled out in Scripture, but is seen by some as implicit in various references. The end of that state is set either at the Resurrection of the Dead , the most common interpretation in the East , or at the Harrowing of Hell, the most common interpretation in the West , but adopted also by some in the East.
Some say that the descent of Jesus to the abode of the dead, his presence among them, turned it into a paradise. Timothy Radcliffe explained the "today" as a reference to the "Today of eternity". Medieval drama sometimes portrayed Christ leading a dramatic assault—The Harrowing of Hell—during the three days between the Crucifixion and the resurrection.
In this assault, Jesus freed the souls of the just and escorted them triumphantly into heaven. The doctrine expressed by the term "Limbo of the Fathers" was taught, for instance, by Clement of Alexandria , who maintained: Recent Catholic theological speculation tends to stress the hope, though not the certainty, that these infants may attain heaven instead of the supposed state of Limbo. Limbo is one such theory.
Limbo | Definition of Limbo by Merriam-Webster
That person, therefore, greatly deceives both himself and others, who teaches that they will not be involved in condemnation; whereas the apostle says: In the 12th century, Peter Abelard — said that these infants suffered no material torment or positive punishment, just the pain of loss at being denied the beatific vision.
Others held that unbaptized infants suffered no pain at all: This theory was associated with but independent of the term "Limbo of Infants", which was forged about the year The question of Limbo is not treated in the parts of the Summa Theologica written by Saint Thomas Aquinas himself, but is dealt with in an appendix to the Supplement added after his death by Fra Rainaldo da Piperino.
But children were never adapted to possess eternal life, since neither was this due to them by virtue of their natural principles, for it surpasses the entire faculty of nature, nor could they perform acts of their own whereby to obtain so great a good. Nor can it be said that they were adapted to obtain eternal life, not indeed by their own action, but by the actions of others around them, since they could be baptized by others, like other children of the same condition who have been baptized and obtained eternal life: Wherefore the lack of such a grace will not cause sorrow in children who die without Baptism, any more than the lack of many graces accorded to others of the same condition makes a wise man to grieve.
Because children below the age of reason did not commit actual sin, theologians came to the common view that these unbaptized children feel no pain at all or even that they enjoy a full, though only natural, happiness through their mediated union with God in all natural goods Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus. The Council of Florence also stated that those who die in original sin alone go to hell, but with unequal pains as those in actual mortal sin.
Klee in , Caron in , H. Schell in continued to formulate theories of how children who died unbaptised might still be saved. By a theologian such as Ludwig Ott could, in a widely used and well-regarded manual, openly teach the possibility that children who die unbaptised might be saved for heaven.
And in , when Joseph Ratzinger , then Cardinal Prefect of that Congregation, stated that he rejected the claim that children who die unbaptised cannot attain salvation, he was speaking for many academic theologians of his training and background. It recalls that, apart from the sacrament, "baptism of blood" as in the case of the martyrs and in the case of catechumens who die before receiving the sacrament, explicit desire for baptism, together with repentance for their sins, and charity, ensures salvation.
It states that, since Christ died for all and all are called to the same divine destiny, "every man who is ignorant of the Gospel of Christ and of his Church, but seeks the truth and does the will of God in accordance with his understanding of it, can be saved", seeing that, if they had known of the necessity of baptism, they would have desired it explicitly.
Our conclusion is that the many factors that we have considered above give serious theological and liturgical grounds for hope that unbaptized infants who die will be saved and enjoy the beatific vision. We emphasize that these are reasons for prayerful hope, rather than grounds for sure knowledge.
There is much that simply has not been revealed to us. None of the above considerations should be taken as qualifying the necessity of baptism or justifying delay in administering the sacrament. Rather, as we want to reaffirm in conclusion, they provide strong grounds for hope that God will save infants when we have not been able to do for them what we would have wished to do, namely, to baptize them into the faith and life of the Church.
In fact, the document explicitly states that "the theory of limbo, understood as a state which includes the souls of infants who die subject to original sin and without baptism, and who, therefore, neither merit the beatific vision, nor yet are subjected to any punishment, because they are not guilty of any personal sin. This theory, elaborated by theologians beginning in the Middle Ages, never entered into the dogmatic definitions of the Magisterium.
Still, that same Magisterium did at times mention the theory in its ordinary teaching up until the Second Vatican Council. It remains therefore a possible theological hypothesis" second preliminary paragraph ; and in paragraph 41 it repeats that the theory of Limbo "remains a possible theological opinion".
The document thus allows the hypothesis of a limbo of infants to be held as one of the existing theories about the fate of children who die without being baptised, a question on which there is "no explicit answer" from Scripture or tradition. At any rate, these theories are not the official teaching of the Catholic Church, but are only opinions that the Church does not condemn, permitting them to be held by its members, just as is the theory of possible salvation for infants dying without baptism.
Some Protestants have a similar understanding of those who died as believers prior to the crucifixion of Jesus residing in a place that is not Heaven, but not Hell. Those in the unnamed "compartment" have no hope, and will ultimately be consigned to hell. These individuals, the captives, now reside with God in Heaven. Mormons teach that "all who have died without a knowledge of [the] gospel, who would have received it if they had been permitted to tarry, shall be heirs of the celestial kingdom of God.
"The Secret Life of Us" State of Limbo (TV Episode 2001) - IMDb
The Zoroastrian concept of hamistagan is similar to limbo. Hamistagan is a neutral state in which a soul that was neither good nor evil awaits Judgment Day. In Islam , which denies the existence of original sin in totality, the concept of Limbo exists as Barzakh , the state that exists after death, prior to the day of resurrection.
During this period sinners are punished and the adequately purified rest in comfort. Children however are exempt from this stage, as they are regarded as innocent and are automatically classed as Muslims despite religious upbringing.
After death they go directly to Heaven, where they are cared for by Abraham. Cultural references[ edit ] This article gives self-sourcing examples without describing their significance in the context of the article. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged or removed. The virtuous pagans of classical history and mythology inhabit a brightly lit and beautiful—but somber—castle which is seemingly a medieval version of Elysium.
Virtuous non-Christians, such as the Muslim Saladin , were also described as among its residents. In the Artemis Fowl series, "Limbo" is the timeless plane of existence where the demon fairies are trapped until The Lost Colony.
In the film Inception , Limbo is a deep subconscious level, far beyond false awakening , and a state in which the characters may be trapped indefinitely. In the adult film The Devil in Miss Jones , The main character Justine Jones who just killed herself by sliting her wrists somehow finds herself in Limbo. He learns that the station located "nowhere" is a sort of borderworld, passage between the "Matrix" and the "Machine" the place where the Machines reside in the real world.
Mobil is an anagram of Limbo. In the indie game Limbo , a boy walks through a black and white world searching for his sister. Devil May Cry , Limbo is a parallel dimension in which the main setting of Limbo City becomes a demonically influenced version of its real world counterpart. The demons that rule Limbo City can drag their victims into Limbo and manipulate the landscape to create twists and turns to entrap the protagonist, Dante.
In Marvel Comics , Limbo is the name of 2 dimensions: In DC Comics , Limbo is a dimension inhabited by old characters who have been removed from continuity or seemingly abandoned or forgotten.
In Warframe , one of the many playable Warframes is named Limbo, who has the ability to travel through a second dimension called the Rift Plane, by tapping into the Void to his advantage against his enemies and in some support to his allies.