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The Qin unified the Chinese Warring States by conquest, but their empire became unstable after the death of the first emperor Qin Shi Huangdi. Liu Bang assumed the title "emperor" huangdi at the urging of his followers and is known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu r.
By BC, the Han court had replaced all of these kings with royal Liu family members, since the loyalty of non-relatives to the throne was questioned. By the end of his reign, he controlled Manchuria , Mongolia , and the Tarim Basin , subjugating over twenty states east of Samarkand.
Chinese forces also mounted surprise attacks against Xiongnu who traded at the border markets. It was draped over the coffin of Lady Dai d.
Emperor Wu accepted this, despite continuing Xiongnu raids. Chinese armies captured one stronghold after another and established agricultural colonies to strengthen their hold. His rival claimant to the throne, Zhizhi Chanyu r.
They repelled a joint Xiongnu- Qiang invasion of this northwestern territory in BC. In that year, the Han court established four new frontier commanderies in this region: Jiuquan , Zhangyi , Dunhuang , and Wuwei. All of these countries eventually received Han embassies.
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He created central government monopolies administered largely by former merchants. These monopolies included salt, iron , and liquor production, as well as bronze-coin currency. The liquor monopoly lasted only from 98 to 81 BC, and the salt and iron monopolies were eventually abolished in early Eastern Han. The issuing of coinage remained a central government monopoly throughout the rest of the Han dynasty.
The Modernists argued for an aggressive and expansionary foreign policy supported by revenues from heavy government intervention in the private economy. The Reformists, however, overturned these policies, favoring a cautious, non-expansionary approach to foreign policy, frugal budget reform, and lower tax-rates imposed on private entrepreneurs. A Western-Han painted ceramic mounted cavalryman from the tomb of a military general at Xianyang , Shaanxi Right image: A Western or Eastern Han bronze horse statuette with a lead saddle Wang Zhengjun 71 BC—13 AD was first empress, then empress dowager , and finally grand empress dowager during the reigns of the Emperors Yuan r.
During this time, a succession of her male relatives held the title of regent.
These reforms included outlawing slavery , nationalizing land to equally distribute between households, and introducing new currencies, a change which debased the value of coinage.
Gradual silt buildup in the Yellow River had raised its water level and overwhelmed the flood control works.
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The Yellow River split into two new branches: Eventually, an insurgent mob forced their way into the Weiyang Palace and killed Wang Mang. However, he was overwhelmed by the Red Eyebrow rebels who deposed, assassinated, and replaced him with the puppet monarch Liu Penzi.
From the reign of Guangwu the capital was moved eastward to Luoyang. The era from his reign until the fall of Han is known as the Eastern Han dynasty simplified Chinese: Western-Han painted ceramic jar decorated with raised reliefs of dragons , phoenixes , and taotie Right image: Their rebellion was crushed by Han general Ma Yuan d.
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AD 49 in a campaign from AD 42— This created two rival Xiongnu states: AD 75 was killed by allies of the Xiongnu in Karasahr and Kucha , the garrison at Hami was withdrawn. AD , who consistently defeated Chinese armies.
The conflict ended with the Kushans withdrawing because of lack of supplies.