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Date: 10.02.2018

And One Wise Man Came Out from the East (1969)

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South Moluccan Shaman exorcising evil spirits occupying children, Buru , Indonesia. Most shamans have dreams or visions that convey certain messages. The shaman may have or acquire many spirit guides , who often guide and direct the shaman in their travels in the spirit world. These spirit guides are always present within the shaman, although others encounter them only when the shaman is in a trance. The spirit guide energizes the shaman, enabling them to enter the spiritual dimension.

The shaman also cleanses excess negative energies, which confuse or pollute the soul. Shamans act as mediators in their culture. The shaman communicates with both living and dead to alleviate unrest, unsettled issues, and to deliver gifts to the spirits. Among the Selkups , the sea duck is a spirit animal. Ducks fly in the air and dive in the water.

Shamanism - Wikipedia

Thus ducks are believed to belong to both the upper world and the world below. The lower world or "world below" is the afterlife primarily associated with animals and is believed to be accessed by soul journeying through a portal in the earth.

Shamans perform a variety of functions depending upon their respective cultures; [33] healing, [34] [35] leading a sacrifice , [36] preserving the tradition by storytelling and songs, [37] fortune-telling , [38] and acting as a psychopomp literal meaning, "guide of souls".

In most languages a different term other than the one translated "shaman" is usually applied to a religious official leading sacrificial rites "priest" , or to a raconteur "sage" of traditional lore; there may be more of an overlap in functions with that of a shaman , however, in the case of an interpreter of omens or of dreams.

There are distinct types of shaman who perform more specialized functions.

For example, among the Nani people , a distinct kind of shaman acts as a psychopomp. These roles vary among the Nenets , Enets , and Selkup shaman.


This demonstrates the differences among shamans within a single tribe. All tools serve to protect the spirits from the eyes of the unknown, thus enabling the Ntxiv Neej to deliver souls back to their proper owner.

The Ntxiv Neej may wear a white, red, or black veil to disguise the soul from its attackers in the spiritual dimension. Boundaries between the shaman and laity are not always clearly defined. Among the Barasana of Brazil, there is no absolute difference between those recognized as shamans and those who are not.

The Barasana shaman knows more myths and understands their meaning better, nonetheless the majority of adults also know many myths. Daydream , reverie, and trance are not restricted to shamans. The laity usually employ amulets , spells, formulas, songs.

These people are often apprentice shamans who failed to complete their initiations. He or she accompanies the rituals and interprets the behavior of the shaman. For this interpretative assistant, it would be unwelcome to fall into trance. This system is conceptualized mythologically and symbolically by the belief that breaking hunting restrictions may cause illness.

As the primary teacher of tribal symbolism, the shaman may have a leading role in this ecological management, actively restricting hunting and fishing. The shaman is able to "release" game animals, or their souls, from their hidden abodes. In many Inuit groups, they provide services for the community and get a "due payment" cultures ,[ who?

Shamans live like any other member of the group, as a hunter or housewife. Due to the popularity of ayahuasca tourism in South America, there are practitioners in areas frequented by backpackers who make a living from leading ceremonies. Common beliefs identified by Eliade [5] are the following: Spirits exist and they play important roles both in individual lives and in human society.

The shaman can communicate with the spirit world. Spirits can be benevolent or malevolent. The shaman can treat sickness caused by malevolent spirits. The shaman can employ trance inducing techniques to incite visionary ecstasy and go on vision quests.

The shaman evokes animal images as spirit guides , omens , and message-bearers. Shamanism is based on the premise that the visible world is pervaded by invisible forces or spirits which affect the lives of the living.

Commonly, a shaman "enters the body" of the patient to confront the spiritual infirmity and heals by banishing the infectious spirit. Many shamans have expert knowledge of medicinal plants native to their area, and an herbal treatment is often prescribed. In many places shamans learn directly from the plants, harnessing their effects and healing properties, after obtaining permission from the indwelling or patron spirits.

In the Peruvian Amazon Basin, shamans and curanderos use medicine songs called icaros to evoke spirits. Before a spirit can be summoned it must teach the shaman its song. Such practices are presumably very ancient.

Plato wrote in his Phaedrus that the "first prophecies were the words of an oak", and that those who lived at that time found it rewarding enough to "listen to an oak or a stone, so long as it was telling the truth". Other societies assert all shamans have the power to both cure and kill. Those with shamanic knowledge usually enjoy great power and prestige in the community, but they may also be regarded suspiciously or fearfully as potentially harmful to others. Shamanic plant materials can be toxic or fatal if misused.

Failure to return from an out-of-body journey can lead to death. Soul and spirit concepts[ edit ] The variety of functions described above may seem like distinct tasks, but they may be united by underlying soul and spirit concepts.